Family is a cultural, legal, sociological and individually defined concept. It is fundamental social group typically include what is referred to as a nuclear family – father, mother and one or more children. Other definition of a family includes all the members of a household living under one roof. Families can also be defined by the ways person behave toward one another or how relationship function in the lives of people.

Thursday, January 18, 2018

Three Basic Principles

How can simple reflex actions – which are, after all, essentially a set of predetermined instructions – lead to the complex achievement that is human knowledge? How, for instance, does a baby construct more elaborate knowledge of a rattle when the only tools of knowing at his disposal are a few rigid reflex actions?

It may be easiest to answer that questions by first looking at how a baby doesn’t come to know rattle : by reading the word “rattle” written out on a card placed above the crib, or by repeatedly being shown a picture of a rattle. These fugitive ways of learning are not an infant’s natural ways of knowing, but an adult’s.

First, babies construct knowledge by acting on the object they are trying to know. To know a rattle is to know how heavy it is, how it feels, what kind of noise it makes , how it taste, and how it smells. To know is to grasp it, shake it, smell it, and mouth it.

Second, children expand their knowledge by relating what they are trying to know to what they already know. Nothing is more natural that the instinct to relate the new to the old, to be known with the known. If a baby already knows how to reach , grasp, and mouth objects, then a new object gets known exactly by reaching , grasping and mouthing.

Finally, children appropriate knowledge by using it. Once they have acted upon something and related it to prior knowledge, hey need to use it in order to master it and make it their very own. Practicing what has recently been learned is the child’s way of giving some permanence to newly acquired knowledge. Although the reason for this tendency toward repetition may always be clear to parents, the tendency itself is very familiar indeed.
Three Basic Principles
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